Investment options fow chart.
Greenfield developments Brownfield IOR
Deepwater drilling and completion activities
• High cost in deepwater.
• Risk of unproductive well.
• Greenfield surface host facilities are expensive.
Low-cost subsea boosting system
• Proven option.
• Increases the capital efficiency
of existing infrastructure.
• Designs available in 2017 are lighter, easier to install
with reduced complexity and risk.
• Known petroleum basins.
• Historical knowledge of reservoir asset quality.
• Predictable increase in future revenues from
investments in ‘Increased Oil Recovery’ technology.
Subsea boosting system (future retrofit)
• Proven option – important to plan ahead.
• Improve development economics:
– Enables higher initial production.
– Potentially reduces the number of wells drilled,
lowers the risk of the unproductive application
Potential ROIs from subsea boosting.
(MPP=mudline multiphase pump)
MPP USD 30/bbl MPP USD 50/bbl
Case study production fowrates.
Subsea pump activation
2004 2009 2014 2020 2025
BOEM production data Natural flow MPP
liquid enabled the use of a hybrid pump, with
centrifugal stages in addition to the helico-
axial stages typical of a multi-phase pump, to
provide a higher differential pressure. The
system also allowed for depressurization as a
hydrate management philosophy of, enabling
single production flowline architecture, lower-
ing capex and providing a large contribution
to the value case for the field development.
Improvements in multi-phase pump technol-
ogy have occurred such that higher differential pressures can be generated as a result of
high-speed motor technology, rapid-control
technology, and monitoring systems. There-
fore, subsea boosting stations have become
less-expensive and more-reliable solutions for
increased oil recovery (IOR) are now available.
To maximize the value created by a subsea
multi-phase pump installation, the technology
selected must provide an optimal production
increase and require low capex and low opex.
Furthermore, the installed system must be highly
reliable to ensure that revenues can be realized.
The pump-system capex used in the analysis
has been by the inclusion of technical and
commercial innovations. The term capex for a
subsea-pump system, as used in this example,
refers to total installed cost, which includes
• Retrievable pump module with mud mat
• Spare pump module
• Manifold foundation
• Topsides and subsea-pump control
• Topsides and subsea-pump-power infra-
• Combined power and controls umbilical
• Subsea-pump-system and umbilical in-
Developments in capex and opex reductions are described below.
Standardization leads to consistent requirements and repeatable quality control processes; such that statistical component reliability
data can be established. Costs are saved by
the removal of bespoke design engineering
activities, which can cascade to require supply
chain modifications, production process and
procedural changes. Further, standardized
components can reduce the cost of product
ownership; standardizing increases the reli-
ability of the equipment as it inherently reduces variation in the products and components.
The potential for component failure and the
cost of component replacement are reduced.
Subsea pump-specific standardization relates to the provision of a set of discrete pump
models (frame sizes), each with a power rating
selected to meet a market need. Therefore,
a wide selection of pumps from low to high
shaft power, can be provided and combined
with a field specific set of hydraulics to meet
the boosting needs.
This is made possible by a fixed hydraulic
cartridge length of 12 helico-axial stages, al-
lowing blanks to be inserted if fewer stages are
required. Hydraulic cartridge change out dur-
ing the operating life can ensure that the pump
remains optimal if drastically changing field
conditions occur. Field specific pressure re-
quirements are addressed using components
qualified to discrete pressure ratings relevant
to the field, e.g. 5 ksi, 10 ksi and 15 ksi.
Size and weight
A compact pump module design enables a
reduction in the amount of pipe and fittings,
reducing module weight, which reduces both
the pump system cost but also the installation
and retrieval costs. A typical design includes
minimal permanent subsea infrastructure,
with most the pump station equipment contained within the retrievable module. The
discipline required to contain all system components within a light-weight retrievable structure has focused the robust system design
to include fit for purpose components only.